My guest today is Stuart Phillips, Ph.D. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Waterloo in Human Physiology. He joined McMaster University in 1999 as an Assistant Professor and is currently a full Professor in the Department of Kinesiology and Medicine. He is also the inaugural Director of the McMaster Centre for Nutrition, Exercise, and Health Research. His research is focused on the impact of nutrition and exercise on human protein turnover, specifically in muscle. He is also interested in how exercise and protein impact body composition, strength, and function in aging. His research is funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, the National Science and Engineering Council of Canada, the US Department of Agriculture, and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation. He has authored more than 190 research papers and several newspaper and magazine articles. In this episode, we learn: What are the overall (daily) protein needs of endurance athletes, and will this differ for ultra marathon runners? Does it matter if we get it throughout the day vs mostly at one or two meals? Does our daily average need to be daily or can it average over days? Is there a protein hunger, per se, that is reliable and will we self regulate sufficiently? What is protein used for in an endurance athlete? How much protein is used for energy /ATP? What do we know, or can we expect about protein needs and use during and following an ultra? Is protein immediately before, during, or immediately after training handled differently? Is it beneficial to consume protein immediately after a training bout? Are there adverse effects of excess protein? Are all proteins equal? And, as always, we what up with an advice question: What advice might he give to an ultra marathon runner concerned with their protein intake?